October 7, 2022
A long-term disorder called chronic kidney disease (CKD) causes the kidneys to function improperly. It is a typical ailment frequently linked to ageing. Though everyone can be impacted, persons of colour and those with south Asian ancestry are more likely to experience it.
It is uncommon for the kidneys to completely stop functioning due to CKD, but it can get worse over time. Numerous CKD sufferers can lead long lives despite their illness.
In the early stages of kidney disease, there are typically no symptoms. It can only be identified if you undergo a blood or urine test for another reason and the findings indicate that your kidneys may be having issues.
Symptoms at a later stage may include tiredness, enlarged hands, feet, or ankles, breathing difficulties, nausea, and blood in your urine (urine). If you experience persistent or concerning symptoms that you believe may be related to renal disease, consult a doctor.
The most common causes of chronic kidney disease are other illnesses that place stress on the kidneys. It frequently happens as a result of several distinct issues together.
CKD may result from:
- High blood pressure – over time, this can strain the kidneys’ small blood arteries and prevent them from functioning properly.
- Diabetes – having too much glucose in your blood can harm your kidneys’ little filters.
- A buildup of fatty deposits in the blood vessels supplying your kidneys due to high cholesterol may make it more difficult for them to function correctly.
- Renal disease.
- Glomerulonephritis: inflammation of the kidneys.
- An genetic illness known as polycystic kidney disease which causes cystic growths in the kidneys.
- Obstructions in the urine’s flow, such as those caused by recurring kidney stones or an enlarged prostate.
- Regular, long-term use of several medications, including non-steroidal anti-inflammatory meds and lithium (NSAIDs).
- By adopting a healthy lifestyle and keeping any underlying illnesses under control, you can reduce your risk of developing CKD.
Five Stages of CKD
Usually, chronic kidney disease does not cause the kidneys to fail all at once. Instead, kidney disease frequently advances gradually over years. If CKD is detected early, medications and lifestyle modifications may be able to stop or reduce its progression.
Five phases of renal disease were identified by the National Kidney Foundation (NKF). As each stage requires various tests and treatments, this aids doctors in giving patients the best care. The glomerular filtration rate (GFR), a mathematical formula that takes into account a person’s age, gender, and serum creatinine level, is used by doctors to assess the stage of kidney disease (identified through a blood test). An important marker of renal function is creatinine, a byproduct of muscular activity. Creatinine is removed from the blood by the kidneys when they are functioning properly, but as kidney function declines, blood levels of creatinine increase.
Chronic Kidney Disease Stage 1
Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) greater than 90 ml/min and renal damage are indicators of stage 1 chronic kidney disease (CKD). Usually, there are no symptoms that renal disease is present. The majority of people will not be aware that they have stage 1 CKD since kidneys function well even when they are not at full capacity. If they are tested for another ailment, such as diabetes or high blood pressure, they typically learn they have stage 1 when they do (the two leading causes of kidney disease).
Blood or protein in the urine, elevated levels of creatinine or urea in the blood, signs of kidney damage in an MRI, CT scan, ultrasound, or contrast X-ray, and a family history of polycystic kidney disease are other indicators that someone has stage 1 CKD (PKD).
Chronic Kidney Disease Stage 2
An individual with stage 2 chronic kidney disease (CKD) has damaged kidneys and a slight decline in glomerular filtration rate (GFR), which ranges from 60 to 89 ml/min. Usually, there are no indicators that renal disease is present. The majority of people will not be aware that they have stage 2 CKD since kidneys function well even when they are not at full capacity. If they do learn that they have stage 2 kidney disease, it is typically because they were having testing done for another issue, such as diabetes or high blood pressure, which are the two main causes of renal disease.
Similar to stage 1, there are other signs that someone is in stage 2 CKD, such as elevated blood levels of urea or creatinine, pee that contains blood or protein, A family history of polycystic kidney disease or evidence of kidney damage in an MRI, CT scan, ultrasound, contrast X-ray, or other imaging test (PKD).
Chronic Kidney Disease Stage 3
Moderate kidney damage is present in a person with stage 3 chronic kidney disease (CKD). This stage is divided into two parts: Stage 3A has a drop in glomerular filtration rate (GFR) of 45–59 mL/min, while Stage 3B has a decrease in GFR of 30-44 mL/min. Waste products can accumulate in the blood when kidney function degrades, leading to a disease called "uremia." When kidney disease is in its third stage, a person is more likely to experience high blood pressure, anaemia (a lack of red blood cells), and/or early bone disease as consequences.
In stage 3, symptoms may begin to appear. They include back pain from the kidneys, fatigue, fluid retention, swelling (edoema) of the extremities, shortness of breath, changes in urination (foamy, dark orange, brown, or tea-colored if it contains blood; and urinating more or less than usual), and sleep issues brought on by cramps in the muscles or restless legs.
Chronic Kidney Disease Stage 4
Stage 4 chronic kidney disease (CKD) is characterised by significant glomerular filtration rate (GFR) reduction to 15–30 ml/min and extensive kidney destruction. Someone with stage 4 CKD is probably going to need dialysis or a kidney transplant soon.
Waste materials accumulate in the blood and cause uremia as renal function deteriorates. A person with kidney disease at stage 4 is more prone to experience problems like high blood pressure, anemia (a lack of red blood cells), bone disease, heart disease, and other cardiovascular disorders.
All of the symptoms from stage 3 plus nausea and/or vomiting are present in stage 4. A metallic aftertaste alters flavor, bad breath brought on by a blood urea accumulation, Loss of appetite; some people say they don’t feel like eating, and others say they have a metallic aftertaste or poor breath. Additionally, they have trouble concentrating, thus It is possible to experience difficulty performing routine tasks like balancing a checkbook or maintaining focus while reading the newspaper. Nerve disorders, like numbness or tingling in the toes or fingers, are also a symptom of CKD.
Chronic Kidney Disease Stage 5
End-stage renal disease (ESRD) is defined as glomerular filtration rate (GFR) of 15 ml/min or less in a patient with stage 5 chronic kidney disease. The kidneys have almost completely lost their capacity to function normally at this stage of renal disease, necessitating dialysis or a kidney transplant in order to survive.
The signs of stage 5 CKD include loss of appetite, nausea or vomiting, and fatigue. headaches, exhaustion, inability to concentrate, Itching, urinating infrequently, Especially around the eyes and ankles, swelling Cramping in the muscles, tingling in the hands or feet, and alterations in skin tone or an increase in skin pigmentation.
Treatments for CKD
Although there is no known treatment for CKD, it can be managed to lessen symptoms and prevent further progression.
Depending on how bad your disease is, your treatment will vary. The primary therapies are:
- Adapting your lifestyle can help you stay as healthy as possible.
- Treatment to imitate some of the kidney’s functions, such as dialysis, which may be required in severe CKD.
- Kidney transplant, which may also be required in advanced CKD.
- Medication to control related issues like high blood pressure and high cholesterol.
In order to keep an eye on your situation, regular checkups will also be advised.
Visit UDC for a quick and effective checkup to ensure that your kidneys are functioning at their best. One of the best urologists in Dubai, Dr. Osama Jaber is a German Board Certified Urologist (Facharzt). He specialises in using cutting-edge technology to treat urological problems in their entirety.