Management of
Menstrual Disorders

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    Menstrual Disorders

    Menstrual disorders are changes in normal menstruation (periods). Changes may be for a short term or long term. Menstrual disorders and symptoms can affect a woman's daily lifestyle and confidence. They can also affect the ability to become pregnant.
    The probabilities of getting a menstrual disorder are greater in women who have many risk issues such as obesity, health problems, women who take blood thinner, birth control (IUDs), eating disorders, too much exercise and stress.

    Our Gynaecologist will ask about your symptoms and health history. You will be asked about your periods. It will help to find and treat problems right away.

    Below are the lists of most common type of menstrual disorder:

    Heavy Bleeding (Menorrhagia)

    The cause of heavy vaginal bleeding will remain unknown but there are a number of conditions which may lead to the development of menorrhagia. Nevertheless, the risk factors vary with age and whether there are any other medical conditions.

    • Hormone imbalance

      not only by oestrogen and progesterone hormone levels. This may be caused from obesity, insulin resistance, thyroid problems or polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS)

    • Anovulation

      This is a dysfunction of the ovaries, this cause that her body doesn’t produce the progesterone hormone as it normally would during the menstrual cycle. This is typical among adolescent girls in the first year of ovulation

    • Uterine Fibroids

      Are benign tumours. This is typical of older reproductive woman, particularly during childbearing years

    • Uterine Polyps

      These are small, benign (non-cancerous) growths on the lining of the uterus. This is typical of older reproductive woman

    • Adenomyosis

      glands from the endometrium become embedded in the uterine muscle

    • Medications

      Medicine for anti-inflammatory complaints, hormonal issues (e.g., oestrogen and progestin) as well as anticoagulants

    • Intrauterine Device (IUD)

      A common side effect of using a non-hormonal intrauterine device for birth control

    • Pregnancy Complications

      A single, heavy, late period might be due to a miscarriage. Additional cause of bleeding during pregnancy due to an unusual location of the placenta (i.e., low-lying placenta or placenta previa)

    • Uterine and Cervical Cancer

      This is specifically so if a woman has an abnormal Pap smear test or is postmenopausal

    • Inherited Bleeding Disorders

      For example, Von Willebrand disease. This is a state where an important blood-clotting regulator is lacking or impaired

    Lack of Periods (Amenorrhea)

    Amenorrhea is missing one or more periods. If you are older than 15 and haven’t gotten your first period (primary amenorrhea)or you’ve missed a period for a few months (secondary amenorrhea),Amenorrhea is often the sign of a treatable condition. With treatment, your regular menstrual cycle will usually resume.

    Risk factors for amenorrhea include:

    • Family history of amenorrhea or early menopause.
    • Genetic or chromosomal condition that affects your menstrual cycle.
    • Obesity or being underweight.
    • Eating disorder.
    • Over-exercising.
    • Poor diet.
    • Stress.
    • Chronic illness.


    occurs when a woman don not have periods; a diagnosis of which can positively be made when there has been no period for more than 12 months. In the time leading up to full menopause, a woman’s periods will typically start to become less regular, before stopping altogether. This can happen rapidly or over some years.
    The menopause is caused by fluctuations in the balance of sex hormones in the body, which occurs as a woman ages. As women get age, their ovaries will build less oestrogen and no longer produce an egg each month. Menopause will usually occur between the ages of 45-55, though around 1 in 100 women will experience premature menopause, thus facing symptoms before they reach the age of 40.

    Early menopause can occur for several reasons, including underlying medical condition, surgery to remove ovaries, certain breast cancer treatments, chemotherapy, radiotherapy, or by an, such as Addison’s disease or Down’s Syndrome.
    Where menopausal signs are particularly troublesome and are affecting your daily life, it is a good reason to try to find out medical guidance to discuss the types of treatment choices offered.

    Common symptoms include:

    • Hot flushes
    • Night sweats
    • Vaginal dryness (also known as vaginal atrophy)
    • Reduced libido
    • Sleep disturbance
    • Mood swings, anxiety and in some cases, depression
    • Headaches
    • Difficulty remembering things
    • Difficulty concentrating
    • Frequent urinary tract infections (UTIs)
    • Bladder incontinence
    • Palpitations
    • Aching limbs or stiffness
    • Dry skin

    Frequently Asked

    • What is the normal menstrual cycle?

      A normal cycle is about 28 days from the first day of bleeding to the first day of the next period. It is also normal for it to be 21 to 35 days.

      The rise and drop of the hormones progesterone and estrogen cause a period to happen. A rise causes the lining of the uterus to become thin.

      A drop causes the lining to break down and pass out of the body. This is what causes bleeding. Bleeding often lasts from 3 to 5 days. It is also normal for it to last 7 days. This cycle will happen each month from about 12 years of age to an average age of 51 years of age. The cycle normally only ends with pregnancy or menopause.

      If you are experiencing menstrual disorder talk openly with your gynaecologist. It will help you make the best choices for your care.

    • What are the symptoms of amenorrhea?

      The main symptom is the lack of periods. Other symptoms depend on the cause. You may experience:

      • Hot flashes
      • Nipples leaking milk
      • Vaginal dryness
      • Headaches
      • Vision changes
      • Acne
      • Excess hair growth on your face and body
    • Do I need to keep track of when my periods happened?

      Diagnosing amenorrhea can be exciting., your Gynaecologist may ask you to keep a record of changes in your menstrual cycle. This history of your periods can aid to figure out a diagnosis. Information such as:

      • How long your periods last
      • When you had your last period
      • Medications you are taking
      • Changes in your diet or exercise routine
      • Emotional challenges you’re having, such as stress
    • How to overcome vaginal dryness in menopause?

      Vaginal dryness is extremely common during menopause. Also, vaginal dryness can cause discomfort with intercourse, urinary urgency, and sometimes more frequent bladder infections. It is important to stop using soap and powder on the vulva, stop using fabric softeners and, and avoid wearing panty liners and pads. Vaginal moisturizers and lubricants may help. Persistent vaginal dryness should be evaluated by your gynaecologist.

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      Dr. Amal Al Mulla has more than 25 years of hospital and private experience. She is a Consultation Obstetrics, Gynaecology and Reproductive specialist.

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